GENRE (KINDS OF TEXTS)

Sunday, 1 January 2012

GENRE (KINDS OF TEXTS)
Reviewed by mulyadi calaviano on
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GENRE (KINDS OF TEXTS)
GENRE (KINDS OF TEXTS)
GENRE (KINDS OF TEXTS)
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GENRE (KINDS OF TEXTS)

Genre much deals with kinds of texts. It has: • Communicative purpose/social function (tujuan komunikasi) • Generic structure/text organization (struktur teks) • Linguistic features (ciri-ciri kebahasaan) Berikut ini bentuk-bentuk genre dalam bahasa Inggris: A. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION (EKSPOSISI ANALITIS) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif (communicative purpose/social function):
The communicative purpose/social function of analytical exposition is to persuade the reader or listener that something is the case (Untuk membujuk, meyakinkan atau mempengaruhi pembaca atau pendengar bahwa sesuatu memang seperti itu. Kadang juga dikatakan bahwa analytical exposition dimaksudkan untuk mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. b. Struktur Teks (generic structure):  Pernyataan pendapat (Thesis)  Argumen (arguments), terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaboration”;  Penguatan pernyataan (Reiteration) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan (linguistic features): Menggunakan:  General nouns, misalnya car, pollution, leaded petrol car, dsb.  Abstract nouns, misalnya policy, government, dsb.  Technical verbs, misalnya species of animals, dsb.  Relating verbs, misalnya It is important, dsb.  Action verbs, misalnya She must save, dsb.  Thinking verbs, misalnya Many people believe, dsb  Modal verbs, misalnya we must preserve, dsb.  Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly, we, dsb.  Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly,dsb.  Bahasa evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, trustworthy, dsb.  kalimat pasif (passive voice) 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Cars should be banned in the city Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the world. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Secondly, the city is very busy. (point) Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and especially talk to someone. In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed.
B. ANECDOTE (CERITA LUCU) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (communicative/social purpose): The communicative purpose of the text is to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing accident (menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa nyata yang bertujuan menghibur). b. Struktur Teks (generic structure):  Abstract: menandai atau menunjukkan penceritaan kembali kejadian yang tidak biasa.  Pengenalan (Orientation): menunjukkan kejadian-kejadian  Krisis (crisis): Menjabarkan secara rinci kejadian yang tidak biasa tersebut.  Tindakan (incident): Reaksi atau tanggapan terhadap krisis  Koda (Coda): Refleksi atau evaluasi dari kejadian tersebut. Generic Structure/Text Organization ABSTACT ORIENTATION CRISIS REACTION CODA c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Feature): Menggunakan:  seruan/kata seru, pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! And do you know what? It’s awful, isn’t it? dsb.  action verbs, misalnya go, write, dsb.  conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu, seperti then, afterwards, dsb. 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Snake in the Bath Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too!Orientation We had just moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap. Crisis Suddenly to my horror, a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us. Reaction For an instant I stood there quite paralysed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom. Anna, who was only three at the time, was quite interested in the whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or she’d probably have leant over the bath to get a better look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water. C. DESCRIPTION (DESKRIPSI) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose): To describe a particular person, place, or thing (Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang, benda atau tempat tertentu). b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure): · Identification: mengidentifikasi fenomena yang akan dideskripsikan · Description: mendeskripsikan bagian-bagian, kualitas, ciri-ciri subjek, perilaku umum, sifat-sifat. c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features): Terfokus pada participant tertentu: misalnya my house, my cat, the museum, dsb. Menggunakan:  simple present tense.  detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya It was a large open rowboat, a sweet young lady, dsb.  berbagai macam adjectives, yang bersifat describing, numbering, classifying, misalnya, two strong legs, sharp white fangs, dsb.  relating verbs untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya, My mum is realy cool, It has very thick fur, dsb.  thinking verbs dan feeling verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis tentang subjek, misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed, I think it is a clever animal, dsb.  action verbs, misalnya Our new puppy bites our shoes, dsb.  abverbials untuk memberikan informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut, misalnya fast, at the tree house, dsb.  bahasa figurative, seperti simile, metafor, misalnya John is white as chalk, sat tight,dsb 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: MacQuarie University Identification Macquarie University is one of the largest universities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40th anniversary. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt, Sydney, where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. In 1964, Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe, but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe, Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor, a grass amphitheatre, and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles, native plants and eucalypts. Today, a railway station is under construction. In three years1 time, Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway, yet retaining its beautiful site. D. DISCUSSION (PEMBAHASAN) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose): To present at least two points of views about an issue (mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang, sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):  Issue: Statement (pernyataan) dan preview  Arguments for and agaist or statement of differing points of view (Pendapat yang mendukung dan pendapat yang menolak atau pernyataan dari sudut pandang yang berbeda). Terdiri atas: -Point (gagasan pokok) 1 - Elaboration (uraian) Bisa terdiri atas lebih dari satu point dan elaboration.  Conclusion or recomendation (kesimpulan atau rekomendasi) c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features): Menggunakan:  general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori, misalnya uniforms, alcohol, dsb,  relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan, misalnya smoking is harmful, dsb.  thinking verbs untuk mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis, misalnya feel, believe, hope, dsb.  additives, contrastives dan causal connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen, misalnya similarly, on the hand, however, dsb.  detailed noun groups untuk memberikan informasi secara padu, misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens, dsb.  modalities, seperti perhaps, must, should, should have been, could be, dsb.  adverbials of maner, misalnya deliberately, hopefully, dsb. 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Issue Argument for Elaboration Argument against Elaboration Conclussion I have been wondering if homework is necessary. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. E. EXPLANATION (PENJELASAN) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose): To explain the process invloved in the formation or workings of natural or sociocultural phenomena (menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam, dunia ilmiah, sosial-budaya, atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan). b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):  A general statement to position the reader (pernyataan umum untuk memposisikan pembaca).  A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs (penjelasan yang berurutan tentang mengapa dan bagaimana sesuatu itu terjadi)  Closing (Penutup) c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Languistic Features): Menggunakan  general dan abstract nouns, misalnya word chopping, earthquakes;  action verbs;  simple present tense;  passive voice;  conjunctions of time dan cause;  noun phrase, misalnya the large cloud;  abstract nouns, misalnya the temperature;  adverbial phrases;  complex sentences;  bahasa teknis; kalimat pasif 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Making Paper from Woodchips General statementWoodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe.Process explanation (sequenced) Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. F. HORTATORY EXPOSITION (EKSPOSISI HORTATORI) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose): To persuade the reader or listener that something should be/shouldn’t be the case (Untuk membujuk, meyakinkan atau mempengaruhi pembaca atau pendengar bahwa sesuatu seharusnya/tdk seharusnya demikian b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):  Thesis (pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan)  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan, dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recommendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya. c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Feature):  Terfokus ke pembicara / penulis yang mengangkat isu. Menggunakan:  Abstract nouns, misalnya policy, government,dsb.  Technical verbs, misalnya species of animals, dsb.  Relating verbs, misalnya should be, doesn’t seem to have been,dsb.  Action verbs, misalnya We must act, dsb.  Thinking verbs, misalnya I believe, dsb  Modal verbs, misalnya we must preserve, dsb  Modal adverbs, misalnya certainly, wem dsb.  Connectives, misalnya firstly, secondly, dsb  Simple present tense  Kalimat pasif  Bahasa evaluatif, misalnya important, valuable, trustworthy, dsb. 2. Contoh Teks In all the discussion over the removal of lead from petrol (and the atmosphere) there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the difference between driving in the city and in the country. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive, I feel that when you travel through the country, where you only see another car every five to ten minutes, the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. Those who want to penalise older, leaded petrol vehicles and their owners don’t seem to appreciate that in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and one’s own vehcle is the only way to get about. I feel that counrty people, who often have to travel huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol, should be treated differently to the people who live in the city.
G. NARRATIVE (NARATIF, DONGENG) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose): To ammuse, entertain, and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways (Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata, khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis, yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian)). b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure): · Orientation: mengenalkan pengenalan tokoh, waktu, dan tempat · Complication: pengembangan konflik · Resolution: penyelesaian konflik · Reorientation: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features): Menggunakan:  nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita, misalnya, stepsisters, housework, dsb.  adjectives yang membentuk noun phrase, misalnya, long black hair, two red apples, dsb.  time connectives dan conjunctions untuk mengurutkan kejadian-kejadian, misalnya then, before that, soon, dsb.  adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa, misalnya here, in the mountain, happily ever after,dsb.  action verbs dalam past tense; stayed, climbed, dsb.  saying verbs yang menandai ucapan seperti: said, told, promised, dan thinking verbs yang menandai pikiran, persepsi atau perasaan tokoh dalam cerita, misalnya thought, understood, felt, dsb. Generic Structure/Text Organization Orientation Complication Resolution Reorientation 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Snow White Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead. One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White. Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods. Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “what is your name?” Snow White said, “My name is Snow White.” Doc, one of the dwarfs, said, “If you wish, you may live here with us.” Snow White said, “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. H. NEWS ITEM (BERITA) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose): To inform readers, listeners, or viewers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important (memberitakan kepada pembaca, pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan). b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):  Newsworthy events: kejadian inti/menceritakan kejadian-kejadiannya dalam bentuk yang sangat singkat.  Background events: menjelaskan apa yang terjadi, siapa yang terlibat, dalam situasi bagaimana.  Sources: komentar saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):  Informasi singkat tertuang dalam headline  Menggunakan action verbs  Menggunakan saying verbs, misalnya say, tell, dsb.  Menggunakan kata keterangan, misalnya badly injured, the most beautiful bride in the world Generic Structure/Text Organization Newsworthy event Background event Sources 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Town ‘ContaminatedNewsworthy event Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Background events Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Source A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.
I. PROCEDURE (PROSEDUR) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose): To describe how something is accomplished throught a sequence of actions or steps (Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah). b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):  Goal: tujuan kegiatan  Materials: bahan-bahan  Steps: langkah-langkah c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features): Menggunakan:  pola kalimat imperative, misalnya, Cut, Don’t mix, dsb.  action verbs, misalnya turn, put, don’t, mix, dsb.  connectives untuk mengurutkan kegiatan, misalnya then, while, dsb.  adverbials untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat, misalnya for five minutes, 2 centimetres from the top, dsb. Generic Structure/Text Organization Goal: Biasanya judulnya Materials - Steps (berupa metode)
2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Goal How to Make a Cheese OmeletMaterials: - Steps Ingredients 1 egg, 50 g cheese, ¼ cup milk, 3 tablespoons cooking oil, a pinch of salt and pepper - Utensils Frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl, plate - Method 1. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. Add milk and whisk well 4. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. Cook both sides 9. Place on a plate; season with salt and pepper 10. Eat while warm.
J. SPOOF (LAPORAN KEJADIAN ATAU PERISTIWA LUCU) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose): To retell an event with humorous twist (menceritakan kejadian, peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur, yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):  Orientation: memperkenalkan participants (tokoh), waktu, dan tempat  Events: berisi kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan 1, 2, 3, dst  Twist: akhir yang tidak terduga atau lucu. c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):  Terfokus pada orang, binatang, benda tertentu;  Menggunakan action verbs, misalnya eat, run;  Menggunakan keterangan waktu dan tempat;  Menggunakan past tense;  Disusun sesuai dengan urutan kejadian. 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:
Generic Structure/Text Organization
Orientation
Event(s)
Twist
Penguin In The Park Orientation Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin.
Event 1 He took him to a policeman and said, ‘ I have just found this penguin. What should I do?’ The policeman replied, ‘ take him to the zoo’.
Event 2 The next day the policeman saw the same man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked, ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did,’ replied the man.
Twist ‘and it was a great idea because he really enjoyed it, so today I’m taking him to the moviest! K. REVIEW (ULASAN ATAU TINJAUAN) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose): To critique an art work, event for a public audience. Such works of art include movies, TV shows, books, plays, operas, recordings, exhibitions, concerts, and ballets (melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya acara TV, buku, drama, film, opera, konser, dan lain sebagainya) b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structures):  Orientation: menempatkan suatu karya dalam konteks umum dan khusus, seringkali dengan membandingkannya dengan yang lain.  Interpretative recount: merangkum plot dan/atau memberikan penjelasan tentang bagaimana suatu karya ditinjau.  Evaluation: memberikan penilaian atau evaluasi dari suatu karya dan/atau kinerjanya atau produknya  Evaluative Summation: berupa rangkuman pandangan si peninjau. c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features):  Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:  adjectives menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;  klausa panjang dan kompleks;  metafor. Generic Structure/Text Organization Orientation: menempatkan suatu karya dalam konteks umum dan khusus, seringkali dengan membandingkannya dengan yang lain. Interpretative recount: merangkum plot dan/atau memberikan penjelasan tentang bagaimana suatu karya ditinjau Evaluation: memberikan penilaian atau evaluasi dari suatu karya dan/atau kinerjanya atau produknya Evaluative summation: berupa rangkuman pandangan si peninjau 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix I absolutely love the Harry Potter series, and all of the books will always hold a special place in my heart. I have to say that of all of the books, however, this was not my favorite. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. The stories were bright, fast-paced, intriguing, and ultimately satisfying. Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. In some instances this works...you feel a whole new level of intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. I was truly moved by the last page. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary, depressing feel. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here, and parts of it do seem long, as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house, for example - housekeeping is still housekeeping, magical or no, and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. A few other changes in this book - the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books, and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book, especially with being a teenager and all, but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. He goes from being a warm-hearted, considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character, like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book, and this part I loved. I actually liked the ending (and yes, I cried!) as sad as it was. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Still a really good book, with some editing it would have been great. L. REPORT (LAPORAN HASIL PENGAMATAN) 1. Ciri Umum: a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose): To describe the way things are, with reference to a range of natural, man-made, and social phenomena in our environment (menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu, apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala-gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum, misalnya, ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Untuk membuat laporan semacam ini, siswa perlu mengamati dan membandingkan ikan paus dengan binatang lainnya yang memiliki ciri-ciri yang sama). b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):  General classification: pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya  Description: menceritakan fenomena apa yang sedang didiskusikan; berkaitan dengan parts, qualities, habits or behaviors. c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features): Menggunakan:  general nouns, seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Island’, dsb.  relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri, misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia), dsb.  action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku, misalnya lizards cannot fly, dsb.  present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum, misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg, dsb.  istilah teknis, misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen, dsb.  paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi.  Tidak bersifat promotif  Terdapat dalam ensiklopedia 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks: THE PELICAN REPORT General classification The white pelican is one of the most successful fish-eating birds. Description The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. A group, perhaps two dozen birds, will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore, beating the water furiously with their wings, driving the fish before them. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish, the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. As the bird lifts its head, the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds, Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.
M. RECOUNT (LAPORAN PERISTIWA, KEJADIAN ATAU KEGIATAN MASA LAMPAU) 1. Ciri Umum a. Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose): To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining (melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur). b. Struktur Teks (Generic Structure):  Orientation: memberikan informasi tentang siapa, di mana dan kapan  Events: rekaman peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi, yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis  Reorientation: pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan. c. Ciri Kebahasaan (Linguistic Features): Menggunakan:  nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan atau benda yang terlibat, misalnya David, the monkey, we dsb.  action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan, misalnya go, sleep, run dsb.  past tense, misalnya We went to the zoo; She was happy dsb.  conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan, misalnya and, but, then, after that, dsb.  adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat, waktu dan cara, misalnya yesterday, at my house, slowly dsb.  adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns, misalnya beautiful, funny, dsb. Generic Structure/Text Organization Orientation: menunjukkan setting (tempat) dan memperkenalkan tokoh. Event 1 Event 2 Event 3 ... dst. Reorientation: Penutup ataupun penekanan kembali Events: menceritakan apa yang terjadi secara berurutan. 2. Contoh dan Struktur Teks:
Our trip to the Blue Mountain On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. We stayed at David and Della’s house. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. It was scary. Then, Mummy and I went shopping with Della. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos having a shower. In the afternoon, we went home.

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